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Journal Description

JMIR Aging (JA, Founding Editor-in-chief: Jing Wang, Professor and Vice Dean for Research, Hugh Roy Cullen Professor, UT Health San Antonio School of Nursing, San Antonio, TX, USA) is a new sister journal of JMIR (the leading open-access journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2017: 4.671), focusing on technologies, medical devices, apps, engineering, informatics applications and patient education for medicine and nursing, education, preventative interventions and clinical care / home care for elderly populations. In addition, aging-focused big data analytics using data from electronic health record systems, health insurance databases, federal reimbursement databases (e.g. U.S. Medicare and Medicaid), and other large databases are also welcome.  

As open access journal we are read by clinicians, nurses/allied health professionals, informal caregivers and patients alike and have (as all JMIR journals) a focus on readable and applied science reporting the design and evaluation of health innovations and emerging technologies. We publish original research, viewpoints, and reviews (both literature reviews and medical device/technology/app reviews).

During a limited period of time, there are no fees to publish in this journal. Articles are carfully copyedited and XML-tagged, ready for submission in PubMed Central.

Be a founding author of this new journal and submit your paper today!


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Shutterstock Inc; Copyright: Gines Romero; URL:; License: Licensed by the authors.

    Prioritizing the Needs of Caregivers of Older Adults to Support Their Help-Seeking Process as a First Step to Developing an eHealth Tool: The Technique for...


    Background: Caregivers of functionally dependent older persons sometimes seek formal services to support their relatives. However, this process of help-seeking is complex. Objective: The overall aim of the study was to use a co-design approach to develop an electronic health (eHealth) tool to support caregivers in their process of help-seeking. This study presents the first step of the design phase, which aimed to prioritize the user needs to be considered during the development of an eHealth tool. Methods: A total of 3 groups of caregivers, community workers, and health and social service professionals participated in either a co-design session (1 or 2) or an advisory committee in 2 rural areas and 1 urban area. The needs identified in the academic literature and during a previous study were sorted (Technique for Research of Information by Animation of a Group of Experts [TRIAGE] method) by the participants (referred to in this study as co-designers) to obtain a consensus on those to be prioritized. Needs identified, grouped, and removed were ranked and compared. Results: Of the initial list of 32 needs, 12 were modified or merged, 3 added, and 7 deleted as the co-designers felt that the needs were poorly formulated, redundant, irrelevant, or impossible to meet. In the end, 19 needs were identified for the design of the eHealth tool. Conclusions: Many of the identified needs are informational (eg, having access to up-to-date information) and are probably met by existing tools. However, many others are emotional (eg, being encouraged to use the services) and offer an interesting challenge to eHealth tool development. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID): RR2-10.2196/11634

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Mobile Support for Older Adults and Their Caregivers: Dyad Usability Study


    Background: Evaluation of digital health applications to support older adults’ independence and family caregiving is needed. Digital health is increasingly providing opportunities for older adults and their family caregivers to educate, engage, and share health information across digital platforms. Few apps have documented evidence of usability by older adults and their caregivers. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the usability of a mobile app in a community-based older adult population aged ≥65 years. The app was designed to improve engagement of the patient-informal caregiver team. Methods: This observational usability study was conducted in participants’ homes and independent living facilities in Baltimore, Maryland. Community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years and their caregivers enrolled as a dyad (n=24, 12 dyads). The usability evaluation was a mobile and Web-based app that allowed older adult users to record social and health information and share this information with their caregivers. The older adult-caregiver dyad downloaded the app to a smart phone or accessed the Web version, participated in training and onboarding, and used the app for a 1-month period. Participants responded to weekly surveys sent by app push notifications and to the usability and satisfaction surveys at the end of the study. Participant satisfaction and usability were assessed using the Modified Mobile Application Rating Scale (M-MARS) and the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results: The final sample comprised 16 people (8 dyads). Responses to the M-MARS were comparable between older adults and caregiver respondents in terms of engagement and functionality. Caregivers rated aesthetics slightly higher (mean 3.7) than older adult participants did (mean 3.3). Although most responses to the SUS were around the mean (2.3-3.4), older adults and their caregivers differed with regard to integration of app features (mean 3.7 vs 2.8) and the need to learn more before using the app (mean 2.3 vs 3.1). Conclusions: Technology ownership and use among older adults and caregivers was high. Usability and engagement of the mobile app was average. Additional training is recommended for older adults and their caregivers, including that on targeted behaviors for digital health record keeping.

  • The Aachen Falls Prevention App as one way to evaluate the Aachen Falls Prevention Scale (montage). Source: The Authors / Jeshoots; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    The Aachen Falls Prevention Scale: Multi-Study Evaluation and Comparison


    Background: Fall risk assessment is a time-consuming and resource-intensive activity. Patient-driven self-assessment as a preventive measure might be a solution to reduce the number of patients undergoing a full clinical fall risk assessment. Objective: The aim of this study was (1) to analyze test accuracy of the Aachen Falls Prevention Scale (AFPS) and (2) to compare these results with established fall risk assessment measures identified by a review of systematic reviews. Methods: Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curves (ROC) of the AFPS were calculated based on data retrieved from 2 independent studies using the AFPS. Comparison with established fall risk assessment measures was made by conducting a review of systematic reviews and corresponding meta-analysis. Electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched for systematic reviews and meta-analyses that reviewed fall risk assessment measures between the years 2000 and 2018. The review of systematic reviews was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement. The Revised Assessment of Multiple SysTemAtic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) was used to assess the methodological quality of reviews. Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC were extracted from each review and compared with the calculated values of the AFPS. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, and ROC of the AFPS were evaluated based on 2 studies including a total of 259 older adults. Regarding the primary outcome of the AFPS subjective risk of falling, pooled sensitivity is 57.0% (95% CI 0.467-0.669) and specificity is 76.7% (95% CI 0.694-0.831). If 1 out of the 3 subscales of the AFPS is used to predict a fall risk, pooled sensitivity could be increased up to 90.0% (95% CI 0.824-0.951), whereas mean specificity thereby decreases to 50.0% (95% CI 0.42-0.58). A systematic review for fall risk assessment measures produced 1478 articles during the study period, with 771 coming from PubMed, 530 from Web of Science, and 177 from EMBASE. After eliminating doublets and assessing full text, 8 reviews met the inclusion criteria. All were of sufficient methodological quality (R-AMSTAR score ≥22). A total number of 9 functional or multifactorial fall risk assessment measures were extracted from identified reviews, including Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment, St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly, and Hendrich II Fall Risk Model. Comparison of these measures with pooled sensitivity and specificity of the AFPS revealed a sufficient quality of the AFPS in terms of a patient-driven self-assessment tool. Conclusions: It could be shown that the AFPS reaches a test accuracy comparable with that of the established methods in this initial investigation. However, it offers the advantage that the users can perform the self-assessment independently at home without involving trained health care professionals.

  • An old lady learning how to use health technology to track lifestyle data. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Mobile and Connected Health Technology Needs for Older Adults Aging in Place: Cross-Sectional Survey Study


    Background: An increasing number of mobile and wearable devices are available in the market. However, the extent to which these devices can be used to assist older adults to age in place remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to assess older adults’ perceptions of using mobile and connected health technologies. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 51 participants were recruited from a senior community center. Demographics and usage of mobile or wearable devices and online health communities were collected using a survey questionnaire. Descriptive statistics assessed usage of devices and online health communities. The Fisher exact test was used to examine the relationship between technology usage and having access to a smartphone. Results: The sample was primarily comprised non-Hispanic white (35/51, 69%), educated (39/51, 76% any college), and female (36/51, 71%) participants, with an average age of 70 (SD 8) years. All participants were insured and nearly all lived at home (49/51, 94%). A total of 86% (44/51) of the participants had heard of wearable health devices, but only 18 out of 51 (35%) had ever used them. Over 80% (42/51) expressed interest in using such devices and were interested in tracking exercise and physical activity (46/51, 90%), sleep (38/51, 75%), blood pressure (34/51, 67%), diet (31/51, 61%), blood sugar (28/51, 55%), weight (26/51, 51%), and fall risk (23/51, 45%). The greatest concerns about using wearable devices were cost (31/51, 61%), safety (14/51, 28%), and privacy (13/51, 26%); one-fourth (12/51) reported having no concerns. They were mostly interested in sharing data from mobile and connected devices with their health care providers followed by family, online communities, friends, and no one. About 41% (21/51) of the older adults surveyed reported having ever heard of an online health community, and roughly 40% (20/51) of the participants reported being interested in joining such a community. Most participants reported having access to a smartphone (38/51, 74%), and those with such access were significantly more likely to show interest in using a wearable health device (P<.001) and joining an online health community (P=.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that, although few older adults are currently using mobile and wearable devices and connected health technologies for managing health, they are open to this idea and are mostly interested in sharing such data with their health care providers. Further studies are warranted to explore strategies to balance the data sharing preference of older adults and how to best integrate mobile and wearable device data with clinical workflow for health care providers to promote healthy aging in place.

  • Older adults using technology in assisted living facilities. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Information and Communications Technology as a Health Promotion Method for Older Adults in Assisted-Living Facilities: Three-Arm Group-Randomized Trial


    Background: The application of technology is an important and growing aspect in the field of long-term care. Growing evidence shows the positive impact of technology aids in helping the lives of the elderly. However, it is not known which aspects of information and communications technology (ICT) are preferred by older adults living in long-term care facilities. Objective: The goal of the research was to compare the impact of ICT-communication, ICT-entertainment, and conventional care on older adults’ health and psychological change after interventions among older adults in assisted-living facilities. Methods: A three-arm group-randomized trial design was used to evaluate participants who resided in three different but comparable assisted-living facilities and received different aspects of the ICT interventions. A total of 54 older adults with disabilities received one of the three interventions over 12 weeks and completed pre- and postevaluations on quality of life, social support, and psychological well-being. Results: Participants completing this study had a mean age of 73 (SD 11.4) years, and 50% (27/54) were male. Both the ICT-communication and ICT-entertainment groups showed significant improvement in the mental component of quality of life (4.11, P=.012 and 37.32, P<.001, respectively), family/friend–related social support (0.05, P=.001 and 0.04, P<.001, respectively), happiness (0.79, P=.038 and 3.72, P=.001, respectively), and depressive symptoms (–2.74, P=.001 and –7.33, P<.001, respectively). Importantly, participants in the ICT-entertainment group improved significantly more than the other two groups. The ICT-entertainment group also showed improvement in the physical component of quality of life (20.49, P<.001) and health care worker–related social support (0.1, P=.008). Conclusions: Results suggest that the entertainment but not the communication part of ICT is the most effective health promotion method for improving the health and psychological well-being of older adults in assisted-living facilities.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: katemangostar; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Factors Influencing the Adoption of Smart Health Technologies for People With Dementia and Their Informal Caregivers: Scoping Review and Design Framework


    Background: Smart Health technologies (s-Health technologies) are being developed to support people with dementia (PwD) and their informal caregivers at home, to improve care and reduce the levels of burden and stress they experience. However, although s-Health technologies have the potential to facilitate this, the factors influencing a successful implementation in this population are still unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to review existing literature to explore the factors influencing PwD and their informal caregivers’ adoption of s-Health technologies for home care. Methods: Following the Arksey and O’Malley methodology, this study is a scoping review providing a narrative description of the scientific literature on factors influencing s-Health technology adoption for PwD and their informal caregivers. A search was conducted using PubMed, the Cochrane library, the IEEE library, and Scopus. Publications screening was conducted by 2 researchers based on inclusion criteria, and full-text analysis was then conducted by 1 researcher. The included articles were thematically analyzed by 2 researchers to gain an insight into factors influencing adoption that PwD and their informal caregivers have to encounter when using s-Health technologies. Relevant information was identified and coded. Codes were later discussed between the researchers for developing and modifying them and for achieving a consensus, and the researchers organized the codes into broader themes. Results: Emerging themes were built in a way that said something specific and meaningful about the research question, creating a list of factors influencing the adoption of s-Health technologies for PwD and their informal caregivers, including attitudinal aspects, ethical issues, technology-related challenges, condition-related challenges, and identified gaps. A design framework was created as a guide for future research and innovation in the area of s-Health technologies for PwD and their informal caregivers: DemDesCon for s-Health Technologies. DemDesCon for s-Health Technologies addresses 4 domains to consider for the design and development of s-Health technologies for this population: cognitive decline domain, physical decline domain, social domain, and development domain. Conclusions: Although s-Health technologies have been used in health care scenarios, more work is needed for them to fully achieve their potential for use in dementia care. Researchers, businesses, and public governments need to collaborate to design and implement effective technology solutions for PwD and their informal caregivers, but the lack of clear design guidelines seems to be slowing the process. We believe that the DemDesCon framework will provide them with the guidance and assistance needed for creating meaningful devices for PwD home care and informal caregivers, filling a much-needed space in the present knowledge gap.

  • Source: Freepik; Copyright: Freepik; URL:; License: Licensed by JMIR.

    Reading Level and Suitability of Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Education in a Mobile App (CHF Info App): Descriptive Design Study


    Background: Education at the time of diagnosis or at discharge after an index illness is a vital component of improving outcomes in congestive heart failure (CHF). About 90 million Americans have limited health literacy and have a readability level at or below a 5th-grade level, which could affect their understanding of education provided at the time of diagnosis or discharge from hospital. Objective: The aim of this paper was to assess the suitability and readability level of a mobile phone app, the CHF Info App. Methods: A descriptive design was used to assess the reading level and suitability of patient educational materials included in the CHF Info App. The suitability assessment of patient educational materials included in the CHF Info App was independently assessed by two of the authors using the 26-item Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool. The reading grade level for each of the 10 CHF educational modules included in the CHF Info App was assessed using the comprehensive online Text Readability Consensus Calculator based on the seven most-common readability formulas: the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Formula, the Coleman-Liau Index, the Simplified Measure of Gobbledygook Index, the Automated Readability Index, and the Linsear Write Formula. The reading level included the text-scale score, the ease-of-reading score, and the corresponding grade level. Results: The educational materials included in the CHF Info App ranged from a 5th-grade to an 8th-grade reading level, with a mean of a 6th-grade level, which is recommended by the American Medical Association. The SAM tool result demonstrated adequate-to-superior levels in all four components assessed, including content, appearance, visuals, and layout and design, with a total score of 77%, indicating superior suitability. Conclusions: The authors conclude that the CHF Info App will be suitable and meet the recommended health literacy level for American adult learners. Further testing of the CHF Info App in a longitudinal study is warranted to determine improvement in CHF knowledge.

  • Source: National Park Service; Copyright: National Park Service; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Digital Information Technology Use and Patient Preferences for Internet-Based Health Education Modalities: Cross-Sectional Survey Study of Middle-Aged and...


    Background: Health information, patient education, and self-management (health information and advice, HIA) tools are increasingly being made available to adults with chronic health conditions through internet-based health and mobile health (mHealth) digital information technologies. However, there is limited information about patient preferences for using specific types of health information and advice resources and how preferences and usage differ by age group and education. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how use of digital information technologies and preferred methods for obtaining health information and advice varies by age group and education among middle-aged and older adults with chronic health conditions. Methods: The study used cross-sectional survey data for 9005 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged 45 to 85 years who responded to a mailed and Web-based health survey conducted during 2014 and 2015 and indicated having at least 1 chronic health condition. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models with weighted data were used to estimate and compare the prevalence of digital information technology use, past-year use of internet-based health information and advice resources, and preferences for using internet-based, mHealth, and traditional health information and advice modalities for adults aged 45 to 65 years, 66 to 75 years, and 76 to 85 years. Results: The percentages of adults who used digital information technologies (computers, smartphones, internet, email, and apps), had obtained health information and advice from an internet-based resource in the past year, and who were interested in using internet-based and mHealth modalities for obtaining health information and advice declined with age. Within age group, prevalence of digital information technologies use and interest in internet-based and mHealth modalities was lower among adults with no college education versus college graduates. Differences in preferences for internet-based health information and advice modalities between the oldest and younger groups and those with lower versus higher education were substantially diminished when we restricted analyses to internet users. Conclusions: Health care providers and organizations serving middle-aged and older adults with chronic health conditions should not assume that patients, especially those who are older and less educated, want to engage with internet-based and mHealth resources. In addition, increasing the engagement of nonutilizers of digital devices and the internet with internet-based health information and advice and mHealth apps might require both instrumental (eg, providing digital information technology devices, internet, and skills training) and social support. As part of patient-centered care, it is important for providers to ascertain their patients’ use of digital information technologies and preferences for obtaining health information and patient education rather than routinely referring them to internet-based resources. It is also important for health care providers and consumer health organizations to user test their Web-based resources to make sure they are easy for older and less educated adults to use and to make sure that it remains easy for adults with chronic conditions to obtain health information and patient education using offline resources.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Matty Ring; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Prevalence and Factors Influencing Use of Internet and Electronic Health Resources by Middle-Aged and Older Adults in a US Health Plan Population:...


    Background: Health care organizations are increasingly using electronic health (eHealth) platforms to provide and exchange health information and advice (HIA). There is limited information about how factors beyond internet access affect use of eHealth resources by middle-aged and older adults. Objective: We aimed to estimate prevalence of use of the internet, health plan patient portal, and Web-based HIA among middle-aged and older adults; investigate whether similar sociodemographic-related disparities in eHealth resource use are found among middle-aged and older adults; and examine how sociodemographic and internet access factors drive disparities in eHealth resource use among adults who use the internet. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data for 10,920 Northern California health plan members aged 45 to 85 years who responded to a mailed and Web-based health survey (2014-2015). We used bivariate and multivariable analyses with weighted data to estimate prevalence of and identify factors associated with internet use and self-reported past year use of the health plan’s patient portal and Web-based HIA resources by middle-aged adults (aged 45 to 65 years; n=5520), younger seniors (aged 65 to 75 years; n=3014), and older seniors (aged 76 to 85 years; n=2389). Results: Although approximately 96% of middle-aged adults, 92% of younger seniors, and 76% of older seniors use the internet to obtain information, about 4%, 9%, and 16%, respectively, require someone’s help to do so. The percentages who used the patient portal and Web-based HIA resources were similar for middle-aged adults and younger seniors but lower among older seniors (59.6%, 61.4%, and 45.0% and 47.9%, 48.4%, and 37.5%, respectively). Disparities in use of the internet, patient portal, and Web-based HIA across levels of education and between low and higher income were observed in all age groups, with wider disparities between low and high levels of education and income among seniors. Multivariable analyses showed that for all 3 age groups, educational attainment, ability to use the internet without help, and having 1 or more chronic condition were significant predictors of patient portal and Web-based HIA use after controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and internet use. Conclusions: Internet use, and especially use without help, significantly declines with age, even within a middle-aged group. Educational attainment is significantly associated with internet use, ability to use the internet without help, and use of patient portal and Web-based HIA resources by middle-aged and older adults. Even among middle-aged and older adult internet users, higher educational attainment and ability to use the internet without help are positively associated with patient portal and Web-based HIA use. Organizations serving middle-aged and older adults should take into account target population characteristics when developing and evaluating uptake of eHealth resources and should consider offering instruction and support services to boost patient engagement.

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Travis Jon Allison; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + ShareAlike (CC-BY-NC-SA).

    Mentalizing Imagery Therapy Mobile App to Enhance the Mood of Family Dementia Caregivers: Feasibility and Limited Efficacy Testing


    Background: Family caregivers of patients with Alzheimer disease and related dementias (AD and ADRD) often experience high stress and are at high risk for depression. Technologically delivered therapy is attractive for AD and ADRD caregivers because of the time demands associated with in-person participation. Objective: We aimed to study the feasibility and conduct limited efficacy testing of a mobile app intervention delivering mentalizing imagery therapy (MIT) for family caregivers. Methods: A 4-week trial of the MIT app for family AD and ADRD caregivers was conducted to assess the feasibility of use and investigate changes in depression symptoms, mood, and caregiving experience. Semistructured interviews were conducted to characterize participants’ perceived feasibility and benefits. Results: A total of 17 of the 21 (80%) consented participants (mean age 67 years, range 54-79) utilized the app at least once and were further analyzed. Average usage of audio recordings was on 14 (SD 10) days out of 28 possible and comprised 29 (SD 28) individual sessions. There were improvements in depression with a large effect size for those who used the app at least moderately (P=.008), increases in positive mood postintervention (P<.05), and acute increases in mood following daily guided imagery practice (Stretching and Breathing, P<.001; Eye in the Center, P<.001; Nesting Doll, P=.002; Situation Solver, P=.003; and Life Globe, P=.006). Semistructured interviews revealed perceived benefits such as greater ability to remain “centered” despite caregiving challenges and positive reframing of the caregiver experience. Conclusions: App delivery of MIT is feasible for family AD and ADRD caregivers, including aging seniors. Results showed moderate to high usage of the app for a majority of users. Limited efficacy testing provides justification for studying the MIT app for AD and ADRD caregivers to improve mood and reduce depression in larger, controlled trials.

  • A study subject completing one of BrainCheck's assessments on an iPad. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: The Authors; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    A Rapid, Mobile Neurocognitive Screening Test to Aid in Identifying Cognitive Impairment and Dementia (BrainCheck): Cohort Study


    Background: The US population over the age of 65 is expected to double by the year 2050. Concordantly, the incidence of dementia is projected to increase. The subclinical stage of dementia begins years before signs and symptoms appear. Early detection of cognitive impairment and/or cognitive decline may allow for interventions to slow its progression. Furthermore, early detection may allow for implementation of care plans that may affect the quality of life of those affected and their caregivers. Objective: We sought to determine the accuracy and validity of BrainCheck Memory as a diagnostic aid for age-related cognitive impairment, as compared against physician diagnosis and other commonly used neurocognitive screening tests, including the Saint Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) exam, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Methods: We tested 583 volunteers over the age of 49 from various community centers and living facilities in Houston, Texas. The volunteers were divided into five cohorts: a normative population and four comparison groups for the SLUMS exam, the MMSE, the MoCA, and physician diagnosis. Each comparison group completed their respective assessment and BrainCheck Memory. Results: A total of 398 subjects were included in the normative population. A total of 84 participants were in the SLUMS exam cohort, 51 in the MMSE cohort, 35 in the MoCA cohort, and 18 in the physician cohort. BrainCheck Memory assessments were significantly correlated to the SLUMS exam, with coefficients ranging from .5 to .7. Correlation coefficients for the MMSE and BrainCheck and the MoCA and BrainCheck were also significant. Of the 18 subjects evaluated by a physician, 9 (50%) were healthy, 6 (33%) were moderately impaired, and 3 (17%) were severely impaired. A significant difference was found between the severely and moderately impaired subjects and the healthy subjects (P=.02). We derived a BrainCheck Memory composite score that showed stronger correlations with the standard assessments as compared to the individual BrainCheck assessments. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of this composite score found a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 94%. Conclusions: BrainCheck Memory provides a sensitive and specific metric for age-related cognitive impairment in older adults, with the advantages of a mobile, digital, and easy-to-use test. Trial Registration: NCT03608722; (Archived by WebCite at

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: European Parliament; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    An Intervention to Promote Medication Understanding and Use Self-Efficacy: Design of Video Narratives for Aging Patients at Risk of Recurrent Stroke


    Background: The debilitating effects of recurrent stroke among aging patients have urged researchers to explore medication adherence among these patients. Video narratives built upon Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs have displayed potential impact on medication adherence, adding an advantage to patient education efforts. However, its effect on medication understanding and use self-efficacy have not been tested. Objective: The researchers believed that culturally sensitive video narratives, which catered to a specific niche, would reveal a personalized impact on medication adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate video narratives for this purpose. Methods: This study adapted the Delphi method to develop a consensus on the video scripts’ contents based on learning outcomes and HBM constructs. The panel of experts comprised 8 members representing professional stroke disease experts and experienced poststroke patients in Malaysia. The Delphi method involved 3 rounds of discussions. Once the consensus among members was achieved, the researchers drafted the initial scripts in English, which were then back translated to the Malay language. A total of 10 bilingual patients, within the study’s inclusion criteria, screened the scripts for comprehension. Subsequently, a neurologist and poststroke patient narrated the scripts in both languages as they were filmed, to add to the realism of the narratives. Then, the video narratives underwent a few cycles of editing after some feedback on video engagement by the bilingual patients. Few statistical analyses were applied to confirm the validity and reliability of the video narratives. Results: Initially, the researchers proposed 8 learning outcomes and 9 questions based on HBM constructs for the video scripts’ content. However, following Delphi rounds 1 to 3, a few statements were omitted and rephrased. The Kendall coefficient of concordance, W, was about 0.7 (P<.001) for both learning outcomes and questions which indicated good agreement between members. Each statement’s Cronbach alpha was above .8 with SD values within a range below 1.5 that confirmed satisfactory content and construct validity. Approximately 75% (6/8) of members agreed that all chosen statements were relevant and suitable for video script content development. Similarly, more than 80% (8/10) of patients scored video engagement above average, intraclass correlation coefficient was above 0.7, whereas its Kendall W was about 0.7 with significance (P<.001), which indicated average agreement that the video narratives perceived realism. Conclusions: The Delphi method was proven to be helpful in conducting discussions systematically and providing precise content for the development of video narratives, whereas the Video Engagement Scale was an appropriate measurement of video realism and emotions, which the researchers believed could positively impact medication understanding and use self-efficacy among patients with stroke. A feasibility and acceptability study in an actual stroke care center is needed. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618000174280; /Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373554&isReview=true

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