Published on in Vol 6 (2023)

Preprints (earlier versions) of this paper are available at, first published .
Key Features of Smart Medication Adherence Products: Updated Scoping Review

Key Features of Smart Medication Adherence Products: Updated Scoping Review

Key Features of Smart Medication Adherence Products: Updated Scoping Review


1School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Kitchener, ON, Canada

2Schlegel – University of Waterloo Research Institute of Aging, Waterloo, ON, Canada

3Centre for Family Medicine Family Health Team, Kitchener, ON, Canada

Corresponding Author:

Tejal Patel, BScPharm, PharmD

School of Pharmacy

University of Waterloo

10 Victoria St. S

Kitchener, ON, N2G 1C5


Phone: 1 519 888 4567 ext 21337


Background: Older adults often face challenges in self-managing their medication owing to physical and cognitive limitations, complex medication regimens, and packaging of medications. Emerging smart medication dispensing and adherence products (SMAPs) offer the options of automated dispensing, tracking medication intake in real time, and reminders and notifications. A 2021 review identified 51 SMAPs owing to the rapid influx of digital technology; an update to this review is required.

Objective: This review aims to identify new products and summarize and compare the key features of SMAPs.

Methods: Gray and published literature and videos were searched using Google, YouTube, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. The first 10 pages of Google and the first 100 results of YouTube were screened using 4 and 5 keyword searches, respectively. SMAPs were included if they were able to store and allowed for the dispensation of medications, tracked real-time medication intake data, and could automatically analyze data. Products were excluded if they were stand-alone software applications, not marketed in English, not for in-home use, or only used in clinical trials. In total, 5 researchers independently screened and extracted the data.

Results: This review identified 114 SMAPs, including 80 (70.2%) marketed and 34 (29.8%) prototypes, grouped into 15 types. Among the marketed products, 68% (54/80) were available for consumer purchase. Of these products, 26% (14/54) were available worldwide and 78% (42/54) were available in North America. There was variability in the hardware, software, data collection and management features, and cost of the products. Examples of hardware features include battery life, medication storage capacity, availability of types and number of alarms, locking features, and additional technology required for use of the product, whereas software features included reminder and notification capabilities and availability of manufacturer support. Data capture methods included the availability of sensors to record the use of the product and data-syncing capabilities with cloud storage with short-range communications. Data were accessible to users via mobile apps or web-based portals. Some SMAPs provided data security assurance with secure log-ins (use of personal identification numbers or facial recognition), whereas other SMAPs provided data through registered email addresses. Although some SMAPs were available at set prices or free of cost to end users, the cost of other products varied based on availability, shipping fees, and subscription fees.

Conclusions: An expanding market for SMAPs with features specific to at-home patient use is emerging. Health care professionals can use these features to select and suggest products that meet their patients’ unique requirements.

JMIR Aging 2023;6:e50990




As of July 2022, Canada’s older adults aged ≥65 years comprised 18.8% of the total population [1]. The number of centenarians per 100,000 persons has also increased from 20.5 (2001) to 34.6 [1]. This can be attributed to the baby boomers, the largest generation in Canadian history, reaching this age group between 2031 and 2036, as well as the gradual rise in life expectancy, which is projected to continue to increase [2]. Older adults are frequently diagnosed with multiple comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, and respiratory disorders [3]. In Canada, 1 out of 3 older adults aged 65 years is reported to have at least 2 chronic medical conditions [4].

Medications are the mainstay of treatment to manage chronic medical conditions. Despite the evidence that shows that medication adherence is vital for managing chronic diseases, medication nonadherence is common among older adults. This can be attributed to a variety of factors, such as cognitive impairment, polypharmacy, multimorbidity, drug-related adverse effects, and storage or formulation issues with medications [5]. Furthermore, older adults often face certain cognitive, physical, or both types of limitations that make daily medication management a difficult and demanding task. Inadequate medication adherence is associated with worsened clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and frequent hospitalizations. A retrospective cohort study addressing geriatric nonadherence among patients with heart failure reported that, with every 10% increase in medication adherence, there was a consequent 11% decrease in emergency room visits, 6% decrease in hospital admissions, and 9% reduction in mortality [6]. Similarly, medication nonadherence has been shown to have a negative impact on health care system costs. A literature review conducted by Cutler et al [7] estimated that 10% of hospitalizations occurred because of adherence issues. A nonadherent patient on average requires 3 more medical visits per year, which is typically a US $2000 increase in yearly health care costs [7]. Thus, medication nonadherence can be considered a critical clinical and economic problem.

Numerous interventions have been identified and used to support medication management in older adults [8]. One such intervention is the use of smart technology-based adherence products, otherwise called smart medication dispensing and adherence products (SMAPs) [9,10]. SMAPs contain sensors and processors that allow them to track real-time medication intake and record medication events such as the date and time of medication administration [11]. These products capture medication intake data through a human-initiated action such as opening a pill bottle, puncturing a blister pack, or pressing a button on an automated dispensing device. SMAPs allow for the communication of adherence information to patients, caregivers, and health care providers through the remote upload of data via various means of connectivity, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, long-term evolution, and near-field communication [11]. In 2020, our research team systematically searched for and identified 51 products, of which 38 were available for patients to purchase for in-home use [11]. In another recent review, 79 different technologies were found to be available for medication adherence, such as electronic pill boxes, pill bottles, blister packages, and various other products that can track medication intake in real time [12]. Although the rapid development of these technologies is intended to address medication nonadherence, it is not clear whether all of these products positively affect medication taking. For example, the results of a previous scoping review examining the usability, acceptability, and functionality of smart oral multidose dispensing systems indicated that the impact of these systems on medication adherence was inconsistently defined, measured, and reported in the studies [13]. In addition, although acceptability and usability were reported by the studies included in the scoping review, the details of why a product was usable or acceptable were not specified. The use of these SMAPs may be driven by user experience with the features offered by specific products. For example, a usability study conducted by Patel et al [14] reported that the usability of different electronic medication adherence products was highly variable. The variability in the usability of these products may be dependent on their features as well as the medication management capacity of the individuals using these products. Previous qualitative research indicates that older adults, caregivers, and health care providers identified simplicity, availability and usability of alarms, portability, restricted access to medications, and storage capacity as some of the product features that may drive their decision-making regarding the use of a product to support medication management [15]. The same study also highlighted user factors that may drive the appropriate use of these technologies, including sentiment, privacy, user frustration, affordability, physical and cognitive capacity, and technology literacy and learnability. Medication adherence technologies that are not usable by patients may negatively affect medication adherence (ie, worsen medication nonadherence rather than improve it). However, the features of different medication adherence technologies that may drive the usability of these products have not been previously outlined.


Given the rapid development of such technology and how features of different products may need to be considered by clinicians when recommending smart medication adherence technologies, we sought to update a previous review of the features of new SMAPs available for in-home use [16,17]. Information on the available features of SMAPs is especially important to clinicians addressing medication nonadherence among their patients and can assist with the selection of the best-suited product. Therefore, the primary objective of this review was to identify SMAPs available worldwide and describe and compare their features to assist clinicians in recommending products that suit their patients’ needs, expectations, and capacity to improve adherence.

A systematic approach was used to search for and maximize the number of products identified. The search encompassed both published and gray literature to identify the maximum number of SMAPs available.

Search Strategy for Published Literature

Published literature was searched using 3 databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid Embase, and Scopus. The search strategy was developed by consulting a librarian. Keywords and Medical Subject Heading terms, including “medication,” “adherence,” “smart,” and “dispensing,” were used to search the databases. The Boolean operators AND/OR were used to combine the search terms. Multimedia Appendix 1 provides the detailed search strategy for the databases. The searches were limited to between January 2019 and August 2022 to identify the scholarly articles published since our last review. One researcher (SF) conducted the searches. The final search was conducted on September 29, 2022. All citations were imported to Mendeley Desktop (version 1.19.4; Elsevier Ltd), and duplicates were removed. The titles and abstracts of the search results were reviewed by 1 researcher (SF) to identify all potential SMAPs. A full-text review of potentially relevant citations was completed by a single researcher (SF) to extract the product information. We used the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines for reporting the studies.

Search Strategy for Gray Literature

Gray literature was searched using the Google and YouTube search engines with the keywords “smart medication dispensers,” “smart medication device,” “smart dispensing delivery,” “smart blister pack,” and “smart medication vial.” Multimedia Appendix 2 provides the detailed search strategy for YouTube and Google. In total, 2 researchers (HP and SP) conducted the Google and YouTube searches independently. The researchers searched the first 10 pages of Google and the first 100 YouTube videos using each search strategy to identify products that met the inclusion criteria. In total, 2 other researchers (YA and DS) reviewed the included products and extracted the product details.

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

Products were included in this review if they (1) were smart, defined as “products that are embedded with processors or sensors that allow data to be exchanged between the products and its environment, manufacturer, user and other product systems automatically via various means of connectivity” [18]; (2) had a mechanism to either dispense or organize medications; and (3) were able to track real-time medication intake via mobile apps or web-based portals.

Products were excluded if (1) they were not available for in-home patient use, (2) the product information was not available in English, (3) they were stand-alone mobile apps, or (4) were used only in clinical trials.

Data Extraction

The assessment criteria developed by Mason et al [12], in addition to features assessed in our previous review, were used to extract data related to the SMAPs. The assessment criteria developed by Mason et al [12] included technology hardware and software features, development information, data collection and management, feasibility and implementation, and acceptability and usability. Data related to the products and their features were independently extracted by 4 researchers (SF, BB, HP, and SP) and reviewed and discussed within the team. The following features were extracted: (1) type of products based on their design; (2) developer information, including region or country of product availability, development stage, regulatory approval status, and commercial availability; (3) technological features, including hardware (size, battery life, product storage capacity, alarms, secure medication storage, portability, and additional technology needed to use the product) and software (reminders, notifications, available customer support for users, and ability to integrate with other clinical systems) features; (4) data collection and management; and (5) other features, including product adoption or social engagement via the product.


The published literature search identified 2351 studies from the databases—PubMed (n=1169, 49.72%), Embase (n=722, 30.71%), and Scopus (n=460, 19.57%)—and an additional 676 records were identified from Google (n=254, 37.6%) and YouTube (n=422, 62.4%). Figure 1 shows the PRISMA flow diagram.

From these searches, we identified a total of 212 products, including 80 (37.7%) products identified from 76 research studies, 67 (31.6%) from Google, and 65 (30.7%) from YouTube. After removing 98/212 (46.2%) duplicates, the final review, the final review included 114 products. The products were grouped into 15 categories. The definitions of the different types of products are outlined in Textbox 1.

The review included 114 products, of which 34 (29.8%) were prototypes and 80 (70.2%) were marketed. Prototypes were defined as preliminary models of a product that were not fully developed, and marketed products were defined as fully developed products that were available for purchase. Tables 1-5 provide the lists of the marketed and prototype SMAPs that were included in this review.

Figure 1. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) flow diagram.
Textbox 1. Definitions.

Product type

  • Automated dispenser: medication dispensers that provide access to a controlled number of medications at specific time intervals via human-initiated actions and record dispensation or retrieval of medications
  • Blister pack: plastic packaging that holds medications in individual pockets or compartments and is sealed using adhesive-coated paper or aluminum that incorporates electronic circuitry or conductive wiring
  • Blister pack add-on sensor: sensors that can be attached to a traditional blister pack and record the puncturing of different blisters or compartments in the pack
  • Blister pack holder: a box or case that allows for the storage of blister packs or blister cards and records the time at which the box is opened
  • Inhaler: electronic inhaler with built-in sensors that automatically records use
  • Inhaler add-on sensor: a sensor that can be attached to an inhaler device and track the date and time of inhaler use; some inhalers have the ability to track other respiratory parameters such as inhalation duration or flow rate
  • Inhaler holder: a stand or holder that is designed for the purpose of holding or storing 1 or more inhalers and automatically records data when the inhaler is used
  • Injectors: electronic injector with built-in sensors that automatically records use
  • Injector holder: a stand or holder that is designed for the purpose of holding or storing 1 or more injectables and automatically records data when the injector is used
  • Medication tray: multicompartment medication organizers for storing medications, with built-in sensors that automatically record the date and time of opening the compartment
  • Medication tray holder: a box or case that allows for the storage of medication vials or a medication tray and records the time at which the box is opened
  • Pill bottle: a vial that can store medication and automatically records the date and time when the lid is opened
  • Pill bottle holder: a stand or holder that is designed for the purpose of holding or storing 1 or more pill bottles and automatically records the date and time when a pill bottle is removed from the holder
  • Pill box: a box that can contain medications in their original packaging and that have not been repackaged into pouches, blisters, or compartments and automatically records the date and time when it is opened
  • Vial caps: sensors on the vial cap that record the date and time when the vial is opened

Product features

  • Alarm: use of visual or auditory signals produced by the device to alert the user to the time of dosing
  • Reminder: a written or audio message that reminds users to perform an activity, such as medication taking
  • Notification: an alert (typically a pop-up or other message) generated by an application to notify the user of a new message, update, social media post, missed dose, or wrong dose
  • Accessibility: design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities
  • Single-medication storage: a product that can only store 1 type of medication
  • Multimedication storage: a product that can store >1 type of medication
  • Ability to integrate with clinical platforms: for example, pharmacy software, electronic medication administration records, and hospital records
  • IT support: for example, phone number, email, web-based forms, and web-based chats for customer inquiry about any technical difficulties with the product
Table 1. Marketed and prototype smart medication adherence products—automated dispensers.
Product type and product nameManufacturer or supplierProducts, n (%)
Marketed (n=80)

Automated dispenser24 (30)

EMMA [11]EMMA Health Technologies

e-Pill MedSmart PLUS [19]e-Pill

Evondos [20]Evondos

Hero pill dispenser [21-26]Hero Health

Home8 Medication Dispensing System [27-29]Visiotech

Karie [30-32]AceAge Inc; Karie Health

LiveFine [33,34]LiveFine

Livi [35,36]PharmRight Corp

MedaCube [37,38]PharmAdva

Medido [39]Innospense BV

MedReady [40,41]MedReady, Inc; TabTimer

Mymemo [42]Studio Volpi

Philips Medication Dispenser [17,22,43,44]Philips Lifeline

Pill Connect [45-50]eLucid mHealth Ltd

Pivotell Advance GSM [51]Pivotell

Pria [52,53]Black & Decker

RxPense Care [54]Medipense

DoseControl Smart Automatic Pill Dispenser—Model 2021 [55-57]MedControl

Smart medication dispenser [58,59]As Directed TLCa

Smart Pillbox medicine management system [60]BlueStar SeniorTech

Spencer [61-67]Custom Health Inc

TabSafe [68]Medication Solutions

The Kindo [69]KIN

Voice Pro (e-Pill MedSmart PLUS) [19,70]e-Pill
Prototypes (n=34)

Automated dispenser5 (15)

e-pill smart medication dispenser [71]CybernetX

ReX [13,72]Dosentrx Ltd

Smart medicine dispenser [73]b

Smart pill dispenser [74]

Smart pill expert system [75]Unknown

aTLC: Total Linked Care.

bNot available.

Table 2. Marketed and prototype smart medication adherence products—blister packs.
Product type and product nameManufacturer or supplierProducts, n (%)
Marketed (n=80)

Blister pack6 (8)

Popit [76]Popit

Electronic blister pack (Med-ic) [77]IMCa

SMART Blister Pack [78]Wellness Pharmacy

Smart Clinical Support Package [79]ECCT B.V.

Smart Polypharmacy Card [80]ECCT B.V.

Time4Med [81]Adherence Innovations

Blister pack holder2 (3)

Aavia smart birth control pill case [82]Aavia

Sensemedic Blister Dispenser [83,84]Evalan

Blister pack sensor1 (1)

CueSticker [85,86]CuePath Innovation
Prototypes (n=34)

Blister pack4 (12)

CpaX [87,88]Jones Healthcare Group

Electronic medication blister [89]DSM TCG B.V.

SmartBlister [90]ECCT B.V.

Smart blister [91]Unknown

aIMC: Information Mediary Corp.

Table 3. Marketed and prototype smart medication adherence products—eye drops, glasses, inhalers, and injectables.
Product type and product nameManufacturer or supplierProducts, n (%)
Marketed (n=80)

Inhaler12 (15)

Digihaler (ProAir, AirDuo, and ArmonAir) [92-94]Teva Pharmaceutical Industries

Enerzair Breezhaler [94,95]Novartis Europharm Limited

FindAir ONE [96]FindAir

Hailie sensor [92,93,97-99]Adherium

Propeller [92,93]Propeller Health (ResMed)

Respiro device [92,94,100,101]Amiko

SmartDisk [92,94]Nexus6 Ltd

SmartMat [92,102]Nexus6 Ltd

SmartTouch [92]Nexus6 Ltd

SmartTrack [92]Nexus6 Ltd

SmartTurbo [92,94]Nexus6 Ltd

Turbu+ V2.1 [103]AstraZeneca UK Ltd

Inhaler add-on sensor2 (3)

FindAir (pMDIa, Turbuhaler, Ellipta, and Easyhaler) [96]FindAir

HeroTracker [104]Aptar Pharma

Injector4 (5)

BETACONNECT autoinjector [105]Bayer

Easypod [106-110]Merck Serono International S.A.

InPen [111,112]Medtronic

RebiSmart [105]Merck KGaA

Injector holder1 (1)

SmartSyringe [113]ECCT B.V.
Prototypes (n=34)

Eye drop device2 (6)

KaliDrop device [114]Kali Care

Smart electronic eye drop bottle [115]b

Glasses1 (3)

MedGlasses (smart glasses-based pill recognition system) [116]

Inhaler2 (6)

SmartTrack device [117]Shanghai Sonmol Internet Technology Co, Ltd

VHCc [118]InspiRx, Inc

Inhaler add-on sensor2 (6)

BreatheMate [119,120]AstraZeneca

FindAir (Diskus; capsules) [96]FindAir

apMDI: pressurized metered dose inhaler.

bNot available.

cVHC: valve-holding chamber.

Table 4. Marketed and prototype smart medication adherence products—medication trays and pill boxes.
Product type and product nameManufacturer or supplierProducts, n (%)
Marketed (n=80)

Medication tray5 (6)

Ellie [121]EllieGrid

MedMinder Maya [122,123]MedMinder

MedMinder Jon [11,122,124-126]MedMinder

MED-TIMER [127]Arthritis Supplies

SimpleMed+ [128,129]Vaica Medical

Medication tray holder2 (3)

Sensemedic Pill Dispenser [83,84]Evalan

Wisepill RT3000 [130]Wisepill Technologies

Pill box9 (11)

CleverCell [131]Compliance Meds Technologies

CYCO [132]Qualife

evriMED1000 [133]Wisepill Technologies

iLidRx [134,135]iRxReminder LLC

Pillgo [136]Pillgo

Pletaal Assist System [137]Otsuka Pharmaceutical

Smart narrowband-IoTa Pillsure Pocket [138,139]1NCE

Wisepill 2G (model RT2000) dispenser [13,130,140-148]Wisepill Technologies

Wisepill 4G LTEb (model RT2000) medication dispenser [130]Wisepill Technologies
Prototypes (n=34)

Medication tray4 (12)

EDossette [13,149]McMaster University

mHealthc system [150]MedMinder

SMSSd [13,151]e

Smart pill box [152]

Pill box5 (15)

iMedBox [153]

IoT device [154]

KaliJAR [155]Kali Care

OnDosis [156]

Smart pill box [157]

aIoT: Internet of Things.

bLTE: long-term evolution.

cmHealth: mobile health.

dSMSS: smartphone-based medication self-management system.

eNot available.

Table 5. Marketed and prototype smart medication adherence products—pill bottles and vial caps.
Product type and product nameManufacturer or supplierProducts, n (%)
Marketed (n=80)

Pill bottle7 (9)

Aidia [158-169]AdhereTech

CleverCap Lite [170]Compliance Meds Technologies

SmartBottle [171]ECCT B.V.

eCAP [172]IMCa

Nomi Bottle [173,174]SMRxT Inc

Pilleve [175,176]Pilleve Inc

Pillsy Smart Cap [177,178]Pillsy Inc

Pill bottle holder1 (1)

Sensemedic Pill Bottle Dispenser [84]Evalan

Vial cap4 (5)

SmartCap [171]ECCT B.V.

CleverCap Pro [131]Compliance Meds Technologies

Smart Med Reminder System [179]Concordance Health Solutions

SmartVial [180]ECCT B.V.
Prototypes (n=34)

Pill bottle5 (15)

Electronic pill bottles [181,182]Digital Media Technologies and AdhereTech

EVE smart bottle [183]b

MotionDx [184]

Smart pill bottle [185]

Smart pill bottle [186]Pfizer

Pill bottle holder2 (6)


SMRTc bottle [188]Amcor and Confrérie Clinique

Vial cap2 (6)

BETR-Cap [189]Pacific Life Technologies

Pill-safe digital health system [190]ModoScript

aIMC: Information Mediary Corp.

bNot available.

cSMRT: separate, monitor, release, and track.

Consumer Availability

Among the 80 marketed products (Table 6), 54 (68%) were available for consumer purchase, whereas the remaining 26 (33%) were available to patients through partner organizations or for clinical research purposes only (Table 6 and Figure 2). Of the products available for consumer purchase, 26% (14/54) were available worldwide, 78% (42/54) were available in North America, 30% (16/54) were available in South America, 44% (24/54) were available in Europe, 30% (16/54) were available in Australia, 35% (19/54) were available in Africa, and 44% (24/54) were available in Asia.

Table 6. Marketed smart medication adherence product features.
Product featureProducts, n (%)
Consumer availability (n=54)

Africa19 (35)

Asia24 (44)

Australia16 (30)

Europe24 (44)

North America42 (78)

South America16 (30)

Worldwide14 (26)
Hardware features (n=80)

Battery life

≤1 y33 (41)

>1 y9 (11)

Not reported38 (48)

Storage capacity

Single-medication storage21 (26)

Multimedication storage57 (71)

Not reported2 (3)


None4 (5)

Audio only10 (13)

Visual only5 (6)

Both audio and visual44 (55)

Not reported31 (39)

Locking feature

Available19 (24)

Not available22 (28)

Not reported39 (49)

Installation andsetup

Additional app required61 (76)

No additional app required13 (16)

Not reported6 (8)
Software features (n=80)

Reminders60 (75)

Notifications50 (63)

Available IT support35 (44)

Ability to integrate with other clinical platforms5 (6)

Ability to capture other data or metrics15 (19)

Data accessibility

Patient only8 (10)

Patient and CPsa only22 (28)

Patient and HCPsb only12 (15)

Patient, CPs, and HCPs28 (35)

Data security

Secure log-in26 (33)

Not reported54 (68)


Built-in SIM8 (10)

Cellular data, Wi-Fi, or Ethernet required72 (90)

Bluetooth11 (14)

NFCc8 (10)

aCP: care provider (or caregiver).

bHCP: health care provider.

cNFC: near-field communication.

Figure 2. Smart medication adherence product features. eMAR: electronic medication administration record; FDA: Food and Drug Administration; HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act; LTE: long-term evolution; NFC: near-field communication; PIN: personal identification number.

Regulatory Approval

Regulatory approval (Table 6) refers to any authorization by the government or health authorities required to market a product in a given country. Examples of the types of regulations considered include the US Food and Drug Administration, Australian Quality Care Pharmacy Program, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance. There were 18.4% (21/114) of identified marketed products that had one or more of the described regulatory approvals, whereas 81.6% (93/114) of the marketed products’ regulatory approval status was not stated or indeterminate.

Hardware Features

Battery Life

The hardware features are outlined in Tables 6 and 7 and Figure 2. Battery life is defined as the duration for which the product can be used after the battery is fully charged. Our review found that some products used single-use batteries that could not be recharged. Some products (4/114, 3.5%) were equipped with a battery level display to inform users of low battery before depletion, which allowed for a timely replacement (eg, Pivotell Advance GSM) [51]. However, some products (29/114, 25.4%) did not have this feature, which may cause them to stop working before users become aware that the battery needs replacement. For products using rechargeable batteries, a full charge could sustain function for up to 1 week, as in the case of Ellie, or up to 3 years (eg, Pill Connect) [45-50,121]. Other products may require an uninterrupted connection to a power outlet to function, which highlights concerns in case of a power outage or lack of access to power during travel (eg, Hero pill dispenser) [21-26]. However, some products may be equipped with a backup power supply to maintain their function for an additional 4 (eg, Pria) to 48 hours (eg, MedReady) in case of a power outage [40,41,52,53].

Table 7. Prototype smart medication adherence product features (N=34).
Product featureProducts, n (%)
Hardware features

Storage capacity

Single-medication storage5 (15)

Multimedication storage19 (56)

Not reported10 (29)


None1 (3)

Audio only2 (6)

Visual only0 (0)

Both audio and visual10 (29)

Not reported21 (62)

Locking feature

Available5 (15)

Not available3 (9)

Not reported26 (76)
Software features

Reminders34 (100)

Notifications12 (35)

Data accessibility

Patient only1 (3)

Patient and CPsa only5 (15)

Patient and HCPsb only6 (18)

Patient, CPs, and HCPs8 (24)

Not reported14 (41)

aCP: care provider (or caregiver).

bHCP: health care provider.

Medication Storage Capacity

Single-medication storage products are designed to only store one type of medication (eg, pill bottles), as opposed to their counterpart, multimedication storage, which can store ≥2 types of medications (eg, automated dispensers). More than two-thirds of the currently marketed SMAPs (62/80, 78%) are multidose, 15% (9/62) hold a single type of medication whereas the remaining 85% (53/62) support multiple (≥2 ) medications storage capabilities. The number of prescriptions per dose, doses per day, and duration of the supply cycle can differ across products. For instance, LiveFine and Home8 Medication Dispensing System can supply medication for 28 days, storing up to 6 doses per day, whereas Livi has the capability to store 15 medications for a duration of 90 days, enabling the dispensing of a maximum of 24 doses each day [27-29,33-36].


A total of 68% (54/80) of the marketed SMAPs were equipped with an alarm feature that reminded users to take the medication when scheduled doses were due. Of these 54 SMAPs, 10 (19%) provided only audio alarms that included beeping or chiming, 5 (9%) were equipped with only visual alarms (eg, a flashing light), and 44 (81%) were reported to have both audio and visual alarms. Some products (4/54, 7%) allowed for recurrent alerts before the dose was due, at the time of the dose, and after the dose. These alerts could continue up to a specified amount of time or until the dose was taken. At each alert, certain products may require users to click a button to confirm the number of pills to be dispensed and initiate dispensation (eg, Livi), whereas others (2/54, 4%) gave the option to receive a dose early or a missed dose (eg, MedaCube) [35-38]. Other information may also be present on the screen interface of the SMAP during dosage events, such as medication name, medication dose, and quantity of pills left (eg, Livi) [35,36].

Locking Feature

Approximately one-quarter of the products (24/114, 21.1%) were equipped with a locking mechanism through either lock and key–protected access to medication storage compartments (eg, MedaCube, e-pill MedSmart PLUS, and LiveFine) or automatic locking of upcoming dose compartments, permitting access only to compartments for doses that were due (eg, MedMinder Jon, Pill Connect, Pilleve, and Pria) [11,21,33,34,37,38,45,50,52,53,70,121-126,175,176]. Some locking mechanisms did not permit access on a scheduled dose basis; however, they did offer a child-resistant feature (eg, eCAP and Spencer), whereas some products (23/114, 20.2%) did not have any locking features (eg, MedMinder Maya). SMAPs that come with a locking feature may prevent users from accessing the wrong pills at the wrong time and may be used to prevent unauthorized or accidental access to medications (eg, child safety or limiting access to medications with high misuse potential) [61-67,122,123,172].

Additional Technology Required to Use the Product

SMAPs track and record real-time adherence data on an external web- or cloud-based platform. In most cases, the data recorded are accessible via a dashboard; thus, it may require the installation of additional software apps on mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets or on a computer or logging in through a web-based portal to complete the setup. There were 16% (13/80) of products that did not require any additional software installations, and they reported adherence through other means such as SMS text messaging or email.

Software Features

Reminders and Notifications

The software features are outlined in Tables 6 and 7 and Figure 2. Approximately 75% (60/80) of the marketed SMAPs were equipped with the functionality of sending reminders, and 62% (50/80) were equipped with notifications. Reminders were written or spoken messages that reminded individuals to take their medications. In contrast, notifications were alerts (typically a pop-up or other message) generated by an application to notify the user of a new message regarding events other than taking medication, such as missed dose alerts, wrong-dose alerts, or other suggestions to help improve medication adherence. Most products (59/114, 51.8%) included both alerts and reminders. In addition to notifying patients, some products (6/114, 5.3%) provided the option of notifying care partners in cases of a missed dose or double dose (eg, Pillsy Smart Cap) [177,178,191-193].

Available Manufacturer Support Related to the Product

IT support refers to the ability of users to directly contact customer services for technical support—this does not include noninteractive user guide pamphlets that are presumed to come with the SMAPs. IT support is offered by the manufacturers to their consumers through a 24/7 phone line, email, SMS text messaging, or web page chat or form. This review identified 44% (35/80) of products that came with IT support. Other accessibility services included certified health care providers available on standby who could provide internet-based advice and home office support when needed. For instance, the Smart Pill Box Medicine Management Systems provide access to licensed nurses, whereas the Karie Pharmacy Home Monitoring Program provides access to licensed pharmacists, and nurses are available as support for users [30-32,60].

Data Collection and Management

Data Capture Method

The data collection and management features are outlined in Tables 6 and 7 and Figure 2. SMAPs automatically record the date and time of use in response to a human-initiated physical action. For example, data capture occurs when a user opens the lid of a medication tray, opens vial caps or pill bottles, presses a button, or inverts the product. Some other methods for data capture included actuation of the inhaler or injector, opening the medication box, punching a blister, or pulling the tab in a blister pack. Depending on the product type, sensors were designed to automatically record the use of the product as an indicator of the dosage being taken. To be able to synchronize the collected data with cloud storage, SMAPs without a built-in SIM require one or more of the following short-range communications: wireless near-field communication, which was available on 10% (8/80) of the SMAPs in this review; Bluetooth (11/80, 14%); and cellular data (eg, 2G, 3G, or 4G and long-term evolution), Wi-Fi, or Ethernet on 90% (72/80) of the SMAPs in this review. SMAPs with a built-in SIM, which was available in 10% (8/80) of the products in this review, may require an additional subscription fee; however, they do not require wireless short-range communication (eg, Mymemo or Philips Medication Dispenser) [17,22,42-44].

Adherence Data Captured by the Product

SMAPs vary in their method of recording the date and time of medication taking. SMAPs may be designed to report periodic (ie, weekly, monthly, and annual) medication adherence history. Individual or overall adherence may be reported as percentages or presented in graphical form (eg, calendar view and pie charts).

Other Data Captured by the Product

A total of 19% (15/80) of the products were also designed to record other data in addition to medication adherence. For instance, the FindAir inhaler was able to capture pollutant levels in the surrounding environment at the location of use [96]. Similarly, Propeller was able to capture the location of use, and BETACONNECT autoinjectors could capture the depth of the injection [92,93,105]. Some products had the ability to capture one or more types of biometric data, such as blood pressure, blood glucose, heart rate, respiratory rate, and weight (eg, Pillgo, Respiro device, and Smart Pillbox Medicine Management System) [60,92-94,100,101,136].

Data Security and Accessibility

The medication adherence reports were accessible to patients through mobile apps (eg, Pletaal Assist System, Popit, Propeller, and RebiSmart), web-based portals (eg, Pivotell Advance GSM), or both mobile apps and portals (eg, RxPense Care). In total, 32% (26/80) of the SMAPs provided data security assurance for mobile apps and web-based portal access via secure log-ins (ie, personal identification number or facial recognition). For products that did not have application installations or portals in the initial setup, medication adherence reports were sent to registered email addresses (eg, Wisepill) [11,51,54,76,92,93,105,130,137,140-148]. Currently, only 6% (5/80) of the SMAPs automatically integrate adherence data into other clinical platforms such as pharmacy software or electronic medical records. Adherence reports could be accessed only by the patient in 10% (8/80) of the SMAPs, whereas 28% (22/80) permitted access by the patient and their caregivers; 15% (12/80) permitted access by the patient and their health care provider or providers; and 35% (28/80) permitted access by the patient, caregiver or caregivers, and health care provider or providers.


There was a diverse range of prices for the different SMAPs. With suitable health insurance coverage, some products (2/114, 1.8%) could be free of cost (eg, Aidia and Medido) to the end user, whereas others (4/114, 3.5%) were available at discounted prices (eg, InPen) [39,111,112,158-169]. Some products (2/114, 1.8%) were offered at no cost if specified conditions were met—for instance, SMART Blister Packs were available free of cost for Wellness Pharmacy patients [78]. In contrast, Pria, along with Voice Pro (e-pill MedSmart PLUS), cost up to US $300 [19,52,53,70]. The cost of a product may also vary by region owing to a variety of factors, such as availability in the region or shipping fees (eg, LiveFine) [33,34]. In some cases (8/114, 7%), providers required users to directly contact them for more purchase information (eg, Livi and Nomi Bottle) [35,36,173,174]. In addition to the upfront cost of the product, some products (8/114, 7%) required monthly or annual subscription fees. Among these products, some (2/114, 1.8%) offered a free trial period before the subscription started (eg, Time4Med and TabSafe) [68,81].

Principal Findings

This scoping review provided a summary of emerging SMAPs, including both prototypes and marketed products. This review also provided detailed descriptions of their features, including product type, hardware features (battery life, storage capacity, alarms, and locking ability), software features (ie, reminders, notifications, IT support, and integration with other clinical platforms), data collection and management, and product cost. A comprehensive comparison of the product features can inform patients, their care partners, and clinicians as they assess the benefits and challenges of using such a product to support self-management of medications. For instance, a product with multimedication storage capacity and an audio alarm may be more suitable for patients with visual impairment who are self-managing a complex medication regimen with multiple medications. Similarly, the ability to limit access to medications using locking features may be essential for patients with cognitive impairments to limit overadherence or in homes where children may be cared for. Reminders and alarm functions are important features of SMAPs that can help improve medication adherence [194]. SMAPs with audio or visual alarms or reminders inform users when a scheduled dose is due, and for some products, the alarm will continue until the dose is taken (ie, MedReady) [40,41]. This feature can be valuable for forgetful older adults.

The availability of SMAPs with a variety of features provides end users with a range of products to choose from when deciding on a device to support medication self-management. However, for these products to be adopted by older adults, several factors need to be addressed. Product design and cost were identified as barriers to use by older adults in a qualitative study investigating the integration of a prototype smart blister pack among older adults with chronic diseases [11]. Product design affects usability, and it is vital to determine whether these products are usable. A previous study examining the usability of 21 electronic medication adherence products demonstrated that their usability varied widely [14]. Although SMAPs provide the ability to monitor medication taking in real time, if older adults are not able to appropriately use these products, it may worsen medication taking rather than improve adherence. An important feature identified in this review is the offer of additional IT support or 24/7 customer service. This factor can improve the usability of the product to accommodate a wider range of users, including those who lack confidence with technology.

Our review identified that these products ranged variably in terms of cost, from a few to a few hundred dollars, whereas others were available without cost to the end user. Still, financial consideration is important as many older adults live on limited income [12].

SMAPs record medication intake in real time and transmit these data to a mobile app or portal. These apps display and summarize the adherence data and allow for remote access, which provides not only the ability for patients to be aware of their medication taking but also the opportunity for caregivers and health care providers to conveniently access an overview of patients’ adherence history. Research has reported that health care providers value the availability of real-time medication-taking data and perceive that access to medication adherence data can help make clinical decisions in a timely manner, thus improving health-related outcomes for patients [13,15]. However, although SMAPs can track real-time data, they do not ensure that the patient ingested, inhaled, or injected the medication and only provide surrogate markers for adherence. Hence, there is room for discrepancy between the adherence data recorded and patients’ actual adherence. The ability of SMAPs to integrate with other clinical platforms such as pharmacy software, electronic medication administration record, or hospital records is also highly valued by stakeholders, especially pharmacists and physicians, as it allows them to access adherence data in a seamless manner and may reduce their workload [15].

In our previous review, published in 2021, we identified 51 SMAPs. This scoping review identified a total of 114 SMAPs. Over a period of 4 years, the number of SMAPs has doubled, providing users with more options and variability in the products they can use. The increase in the number of products underlines the importance of addressing the declining capacity of older adults to self-manage their medications, which has downstream effects on medication adherence, medication errors, clinical outcomes, and hospitalizations.

The major strength of this review is the use of both published and gray literature to identify the products as well as using a comprehensive search strategy to capture the products available worldwide. Although this review has its strengths, it is important to acknowledge its limitations. One limitation is that the search was limited to products available in English; thus, it may not be representative of all SMAPs currently available in the global market. Another limitation is that the features identified for each product were limited to resources available on the web; the products were not purchased for testing by our research team. Although this review provides a detailed summary of the features associated with each of the 114 identified SMAPs, it did not evaluate the usability of the products; therefore, it cannot comment on how usable these products are for older adults.


SMAPs can vary greatly in the features they possess. With an increasing number of SMAPs being introduced into the market, it can be challenging for patients, care partners, and clinicians to determine which is the most appropriate product for medication management. This review can potentially serve as a useful resource for clinicians to become familiar with the essential features of SMAPs, facilitating their ability to recommend a SMAP that aligns with their patients’ specific needs related to medication management.


The authors would like to acknowledge Caitlin Carter for her advice on developing the initial search strategy and Jessica Ivo and Natalie Sabonjian for their contribution to data extraction. This project was funded by a grant from the National Research Council - Canada and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research - Institute of Aging (Funding Reference Number 184372).

Conflicts of Interest

None declared.

Multimedia Appendix 1

Databases search strategy.

PDF File (Adobe PDF File), 67 KB

Multimedia Appendix 2

Google and YouTube search strategy. A detailed list of the features of each product is available on our website.

PDF File (Adobe PDF File), 10 KB

  1. Older adults and population aging statistics Internet. Statistics Canada. URL: [accessed 2022-02-21]
  2. Statistics C. A portrait of Canada’s growing population aged 85 and older from the 2021 Census. Statistics Canada. 2021. URL: [accessed 2022-02-21]
  3. Prevalence of chronic diseases and risk factors among Canadians aged 65 years and older. Government of Canada. URL: https:/​/www.​​en/​services/​health/​publications/​diseases-conditions/​prevalence-chronic-disease-risk-factors-canadians -aged-65-years-older.​html [accessed 2023-03-23]
  4. Aging and chronic diseases: A profile of Canadian seniors. Public Health Agency of Canada. URL: https:/​/www.​​en/​public-health/​services/​publications/​diseases-conditions/​aging-chronic-diseases-profile-canadian-seniors-report.​html [accessed 2023-03-23]
  5. Smaje A, Weston-Clark M, Raj R, Orlu M, Davis D, Rawle M. Factors associated with medication adherence in older patients: a systematic review. Aging Med (Milton). Dec 30, 2018;1(3):254-266. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  6. Hood S, Giazzon A, Seamon G, Lane KA, Wang J, Eckert GJ, et al. Association between medication adherence and the outcomes of heart failure. Pharmacotherapy. May 2018;38(5):539-545. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  7. Cutler RL, Fernandez-Llimos F, Frommer M, Benrimoj C, Garcia-Cardenas V. Economic impact of medication non-adherence by disease groups: a systematic review. BMJ Open. Jan 21, 2018;8(1):e016982. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  8. Costa E, Giardini A, Savin M, Menditto E, Lehane E, Laosa O, et al. Interventional tools to improve medication adherence: review of literature. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2015;9:1303-1314. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  9. Checchi KD, Huybrechts KF, Avorn J, Kesselheim AS. Electronic medication packaging devices and medication adherence: a systematic review. JAMA. Sep 24, 2014;312(12):1237-1247. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  10. van Heuckelum M, van den Ende CH, Houterman AE, Heemskerk CP, van Dulmen S, van den Bemt BJ. The effect of electronic monitoring feedback on medication adherence and clinical outcomes: a systematic review. PLoS One. Oct 9, 2017;12(10):e0185453. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  11. Faisal S, Ivo J, Patel T. A review of features and characteristics of smart medication adherence products. Can Pharm J (Ott). Jul 30, 2021;154(5):312-323. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  12. Mason M, Cho Y, Rayo J, Gong Y, Harris M, Jiang Y. Technologies for medication adherence monitoring and technology assessment criteria: narrative review. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. Mar 10, 2022;10(3):e35157. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  13. Faisal S, Ivo J, Lee C, Carter C, Patel T. The usability, acceptability, and functionality of smart oral multidose dispensing systems for medication adherence: a scoping review. J Pharm Pract. Jun 17, 2022;35(3):455-468. [CrossRef] [Medline]
  14. Patel T, Ivo J, Faisal S, McDougall A, Carducci J, Pritchard S, et al. A prospective study of usability and workload of electronic medication adherence products by older adults, caregivers, and health care providers. J Med Internet Res. Jun 02, 2020;22(6):e18073. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  15. Faisal S, Ivo J, Abu Fadaleh S, Patel T. Exploring the value of real-time medication adherence monitoring: a qualitative study. Pharmacy (Basel). Jan 18, 2023;11(1):18. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  16. Pal P, Sambhakar S, Dave V, Paliwal SK, Paliwal S, Sharma M, et al. A review on emerging smart technological innovations in healthcare sector for increasing patient's medication adherence. Global Health Journal. Dec 2021;5(4):183-189. [CrossRef]
  17. Aldeer M, Javanmard M, Ortiz J, Martin R. Monitoring technologies for quantifying medication adherence. In: Wac K, Wulfovich S, editors. Quantifying Quality of Life: Incorporating Daily Life into Medicine. Cham, Switzerland. Springer; 2022;49-78.
  18. Bergmann R, Althoff KD, Frubach U, Schmid K. Workshop summary: artificial intelligence. In: Mühlhäuser M, Ferscha A, Aitenbichler E, editors. Constructing Ambient Intelligence. Berlin, Germany. Springer; 2008;1-3.
  19. Home page. e-pill. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  20. Home page. Evondos. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  21. Home page. Hero Health. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  22. Comparison: automated medication dispensers. The Senior List. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  23. Home page. Techenhanced Life. URL: tions [accessed 2023-11-29]
  24. Hero pill dispenser review. Forbes. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  25. Remote dispensing with hero. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  26. How Hero works. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  27. Home8 medication dispenser system. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  28. Automatic medicine dispenser user manual. Home 8 Alarm. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  29. Smart care: H8-WMD1201. Visotech. URL: wmd1201-detail#tab=prod_3 [accessed 2023-11-29]
  30. Smart medication dispenser. Wellness Pharmacy. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  31. Automatic pill dispenser. Karie Health. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  32. Karie: medicine made simple. Karie Health. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  33. LiveFine - Dispensador de pastillas automático WiFi inteligente | Organizador de medicamentos de 28 días hasta 9 dosis por día para monitoreo de cuidado con llave de bloqueo, alarmas ajustables de luz/sonido para recetas y vitaminas. Amazon. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  34. Smart pill dispensers. LiveFine. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  35. Smart pill dispenser. Livi. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  36. Automatic pill dispenser. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  37. 10 best smart pill dispensers 2020. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  38. Levine DM, Cueva MA, Shi S, Limaj I, Wambolt B, Grabowski DC, et al. Skilled nursing facility care at home for adults discharged from the hospital: a pilot randomized controlled trial. J Appl Gerontol. Jun 10, 2022;41(6):1585-1594. [CrossRef] [Medline]
  39. Hannink K, ter Brake L, Oonk N, Wertenbroek A, Piek M, Vree-Egberts L, et al. A randomized controlled efficacy study of the Medido medication dispenser in Parkinson’s disease. BMC Geriatr. Oct 16, 2019;19(1):273. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  40. MedReady® automated and monitored medication dispenser. Lifeline. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  41. MedReady MR-357FL auto pill dispenser SMS/Email alerts* and light. TabTimber. URL: [accessed 2023-11-29]
  42. Marchese K. Mymemo wants to be the “world’s first automatic pill dispenser”. DesignWanted. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  43. Philips lifeline, medication dispenser: review. Tech-enhanced Life. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  44. Automated medication dispensing service support. Lifeline. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  45. Zijp TR, Touw DJ, van Boven JF. User acceptability and technical robustness evaluation of a novel smart pill bottle prototype designed to support medication adherence. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2020;14:625-634. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  46. Pill connect - products, competitors, financials, employees, headquarters locations. CB Information Services. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  47. Brown B. Smart pill bottle. Health Tech Insider. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  48. Smart pill bottle becomes one-size-fits-all dispenser cap. Med-Tech Innovation. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  49. New ‘smart pill’ technology reports 100% success rate. PharmaTimes. 2019. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  50. Nawrat A. Could smart pill bottles dispense a solution to drug non-adherence? Pharmaceutical Technology. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  51. Homepage. Pivotell. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  52. Smart medicine organizer and app. Pria. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  53. Best automatic pill dispensers. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  54. Home page. Medipense Pill Dispensers. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  55. Smart automatic pill dispenser DoseControl - model 2021. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  56. Pill dispenser automatic transparent 2021 English. MedControl Systems GmbH, DoseControl. URL: https:/​/www.​medcontrol .eu/​p/​385/​smart-automatic-pill-dispenser-with-alarm-dosecontrol-new-model-2021-english-transparent-lid [accessed 2023-03-08]
  57. Pill dispenser automatic model 2021 connected. MedControl Systems GmbH, DoseControl. URL: https:/​/www.​​p/​386/​smart-automatic-pill-dispenser-with-alarm-dosecontrol-new-model-2021-english-transparent-lid-connected [accessed 2023-03-08]
  58. Smart medication dispensing device. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  59. Home page. Total Linked Care. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  60. Shop health products. BlueStar SeniorTech Medication Dispenser. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  61. Patel T, Ivo J, Pitre T, Faisal S, Antunes K, Oda K. An in-home medication dispensing system to support medication adherence for patients with chronic conditions in the community setting: prospective observational pilot study. JMIR Form Res. May 19, 2022;6(5):e34906. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  62. Arain M, Ahmad A, Chiu V, Kembel L. Medication adherence support of an in-home electronic medication dispensing system for individuals living with chronic conditions: a pilot randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. Jan 14, 2021;21(1):56. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  63. Ahmad A, Chiu V, Arain MA. Users' perceptions of an in-home electronic medication dispensing system: a qualitative study. Med Devices (Auckl). Feb 11, 2020;13:31-39. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  64. Spencer - medication dispenser. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  65. Home page. Spencer Health Solutions. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  66. Okanagan healthcare company develops modern medication dispenser. Global News. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  67. Medication dispenser and connected apps. Philips Healthcare. URL: https:/​/www.​​healthcare/​services/​population-health-management/​patient-engagement/​medication-adherence/​medication-dispenser [accessed 2023-03-08]
  68. Review. Tabsafe Medication Dispenser. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  69. Revolutionize Homecare. Kindo & App. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  70. Voice Pro. e-pill Medication. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  71. ePill - smart medication dispenser. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  72. Shtrichman R, Conrad S, Schimo K, Shachar R, Machluf E, Mindal E, et al. Use of a digital medication management system for effective assessment and enhancement of patient adherence to therapy (ReX): feasibility study. JMIR Hum Factors. Nov 26, 2018;5(4):e10128. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  73. Kassem A, Wissam A, Mustapha H, Chady EM. A comprehensive approach for a smart medication dispenser. Univer Bahrain Sci J. Jul 1, 2019;8(2):131-141. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  74. Casciaro S, Massa L, Sergi I, Patrono L. A smart pill dispenser to support elderly people in medication adherence. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Smart and Sustainable Technologies. Presented at: SpliTech '20; September 23-26, 2020, 2020;1-6; Split, Croatia. URL: [CrossRef]
  75. Pedi RJ, Chavan A. AI-IoT based smart pill expert system. In: Proceedings of the 2020 4th International Conference on Trends in Electronics and Informatics. Presented at: ICOEI '20; April 16-18, 2020, 2020;407-414; Tirunelveli, India. URL: [CrossRef]
  76. Popit Sense: smart pill tracker. Popit. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  77. Cunningham E, Hajarizadeh B, Amin J, Litwin AH, Gane E, Cooper C, et al. SIMPLIFYD3FEAT study groups. Adherence to once-daily and twice-daily direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis c infection among people with recent injection drug use or current opioid agonist therapy. Clin Infect Dis. Oct 23, 2020;71(7):e115-e124. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  78. Editor B. Everything you need to know about our smart blister pack Homepage on the Internet. Wellness Pharmacy. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  79. Smart clinical support package. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  80. Smart polypharmacy card. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  81. Arnet I, Rothen J, Hersberger KE. Validation of a novel electronic device for medication adherence monitoring of ambulatory patients. Pharmacy (Basel). Nov 20, 2019;7(4):155. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  82. Aavia smart birth control pill case. Aavia. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  83. Evalan: sensemedic smart medication dispenser. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  84. Smart dispensers: medication dispensers. Sensemedic. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  85. Cuepath innovation launches generation ii smart blister packaging solution for medication adherence monitoring. Cision. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  86. Nunn B. Home page. CuePath. URL: [accessed 2023-03-08]
  87. Faisal S, Ivo J, Tennant R, Prior KA, Grindrod K, McMillan C, et al. Integration of a smart multidose blister package for medication intake: a mixed method ethnographic informed study of older adults with chronic diseases. PLoS One. 2022;17(1):e0262012. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  88. Faisal S, Ivo J, Tennant R, Prior K, Grindrod K, McMillan C, et al. Implementation of a real-time medication intake monitoring technology intervention in community pharmacy settings: a mixed-method pilot study. Pharmacy. May 25, 2021;9(2):105. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  89. Brath H, Morak J, Kästenbauer T, Modre-Osprian R, Strohner-Kästenbauer H, Schwarz M, et al. Mobile health (mHealth) based medication adherence measurement - a pilot trial using electronic blisters in diabetes patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. Sep 2013;76 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):47-55. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  90. Standard medication smartblister. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-29]
  91. Zannos S, Nikitopoulos D, Gryparis V. Promoting medication adherence by redesigning medical blisters - the Smartblister approach. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies. Presented at: MOCAST '22; June 8-10, 2022, 2022;1-5; Bremen, Germany. URL: [CrossRef]
  92. Chan A, Pleasants R, Dhand R, Tilley SL, Schworer SA, Costello RW, et al. Digital inhalers for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a scientific perspective. Pulm Ther. Dec 2021;7(2):345-376. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  93. Brennan V, Mulvey C, Greene G, Hale E, Costello R. A clinical perspective on the role of electronic devices in monitoring and promoting adherence in airways disease. Front Med Technol. 2021;3:604475. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  94. Mehta P. Dry powder inhalers: a concise summary of the electronic monitoring devices. Ther Deliv. Jan 2021;12(1):1-6. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  95. Enerzair breezhaler. European Medicines Agency. URL: -breezhaler [accessed 2023-03-08]
  96. Smart inhalers and asthma monitoring system. FindAir. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  97. Hailie® sensors. Hailie®. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  98. De Simoni A, Fleming L, Holliday L, Horne R, Priebe S, Bush A, et al. Electronic reminders and rewards to improve adherence to inhaled asthma treatment in adolescents: a non-randomised feasibility study in tertiary care. BMJ Open. Oct 29, 2021;11(10):e053268. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  99. Makhecha S, Chan A, Pearce C, Jamalzadeh A, Fleming L. Novel electronic adherence monitoring devices in children with asthma: a mixed-methods study. BMJ Open Respir Res. Nov 2020;7(1):e000589. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  100. Smart pillbox concept expands to other medications. CTV News. 2014. URL: -concept-expands-to-other-medications-1.2082553 [accessed 2023-03-16]
  101. Sportel E, Oude Wolcherink MJ, van der Palen J, Lenferink A, Thio BJ, Movig KL, et al. Does immediate smart feedback on therapy adherence and inhalation technique improve asthma control in children with uncontrolled asthma? A study protocol of the IMAGINE I study. Trials. Sep 17, 2020;21(1):801. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  102. SmartMatTM- Inhaler with USB port by Adherium. MedicalExpo. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  103. Kuipers E, Poot C, Wensing M, Chavannes N, de Smet PA, Teichert M. Self-management maintenance inhalation therapy with eHealth (SELFIE): observational study on the use of an electronic monitoring device in respiratory patient care and research. J Med Internet Res. May 30, 2019;21(5):e13551. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  104. Hollenbach J, Simoneau T, Sun Y, Becene I, Almeida S, Langton C, et al. Design, methods, and baseline characteristics of a pilot, randomized, controlled trial of the effects of an electronic monitoring device on medication adherence in children with asthma. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. Mar 2021;21:100706. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  105. Farej R, Rametta M, La Rose A, Quillen A, McLeod K. A prospective, observational, multicenter study assessing adherence to interferon beta-1b therapy and patient satisfaction using the betaconnect auto-injector. Neurol Ther. Mar 2022;11(1):373-384. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  106. Assefi A, Roca F, Rubstein A, Chareca C. Positive impact of targeted educational intervention in children with low adherence to growth hormone treatment identified by use of the Easypod™ electronic auto-injector device. Front Med Technol. 2021;3:609878. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  107. Blanco-López A, Antillón-Ferreira C, Saavedra-Castillo E, Barrientos-Pérez M, Rivero-Escalante H, Flores-Caloca O, et al. Adherence to treatment in children with growth hormone deficiency, small for gestational age and Turner syndrome in Mexico: results of the Easypod™ connect observational study (ECOS). J Endocrinol Invest. Oct 2020;43(10):1447-1452. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  108. Charmandari E, Vlachopapadopoulou E, Kyritsi E, Sakellariou D, Koledova E, Nespithal K, et al. Adherence and long-term outcomes of therapy in paediatric patients in Greece using the easypod™ electromechanical device for growth hormone treatment: The phase IV multicentre easypod™ connect observational study (ECOS). Growth Horm IGF Res. 2020;53-54:101336. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  109. Rodríguez Arnao MD, Rodríguez Sánchez A, Díez López I, Ramírez Fernández J, Bermúdez de la Vega JA, Yeste Fernández D, et al. Adherence and long-term outcomes of growth hormone therapy with easypod™ in pediatric subjects: Spanish ECOS study. Endocr Connect. Sep 01, 2019;8(9):1240-1249. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  110. FDA approval of Easypod: new electronic growth hormone injection device. FDA News. URL: https:/​/www.​​articles/​100833-fda-approval-of-easypod-new-electronic-growth-hormone-injection-device [accessed 2023-03-16]
  111. Kompala T, Neinstein A. Smart insulin pens: advancing digital transformation and a connected diabetes care ecosystem. J Diabetes Sci Technol. May 2022;16(3):596-604. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  112. Take the right insulin dose at the right time. Medtronic Diabetes. 2021. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  113. SmartSyringe. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-16]
  114. McGlumphy E, Dosto N, Johnson T, Quigley H. Electronically monitored corticosteroid eye drop adherence after trabeculectomy compared to surgical success. Ophthalmol Glaucoma. 2022;5(4):379-387. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  115. Aguilar-Rivera M, Erudaitius D, Wu V, Tantiongloc JC, Kang DY, Coleman TP, et al. Smart electronic eyedrop bottle for unobtrusive monitoring of glaucoma medication adherence. Sensors (Basel). Apr 30, 2020;20(9):2570. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  116. Chang W, Chen L, Hsu C, Chen J, Yang T, Lin C. MedGlasses: a wearable smart-glasses-based drug pill recognition system using deep learning for visually impaired chronic patients. IEEE Access. 2020;8:17013-17024. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  117. Chan A, Harrison J, Black P, Mitchell E, Foster J. Using electronic monitoring devices to measure inhaler adherence: a practical guide for clinicians. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(3):335-49.e1. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  118. Zhao A, O'Callaghan C, Liu X. A novel adherence sensor system for valved holding chambers suitable for children and adults with asthma. IEEE Sensors J. May 15, 2021;21(10):12276-12283. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  119. Criner G, Cole T, Hahn K, Kastango K, Eudicone J, Gilbert I. The impact of budesonide/formoterol pMDI medication reminders on adherence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: results of a randomized, phase 4, clinical study. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. Mar 2021;16:563-577. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  120. A randomized clinical study to assess the impact of Symbicort® pMDI medication reminders on adherence in COPD patients. URL: [accessed 2023-03-28]
  121. Organize all your pills in seconds. EllieGrid. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  122. Electronic pill dispenser. MedMinder. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  123. MedMinder, Maya: review. Tech-enhanced Life. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  124. 6 of the best medication reminders to try. Healthline. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  125. Thales cellular IoT products business is part of Telit-Cinterion. Thales Group. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  126. Dunn KE, Brooner RK, Stoller KB. Technology-assisted methadone take-home dosing for dispensing methadone to persons with opioid use disorder during the Covid-19 pandemic. J Subst Abuse Treat. Mar 2021;121:108197. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  127. Med-Time electronic pill reminder and dispenser with bluetooth: medication organizer. The Wright Stuff. URL: https:/​/www.​​med-e-lert-electronic-pill-reminder-dispenser-with-solid-cover.​html [accessed 2023-03-17]
  128. Wabnitz A, Chandler J, Treiber F, Sen S, Jenkins C, Newman JC, et al. Program to avoid cerebrovascular events through systematic electronic tracking and tailoring of an eminent risk factor: protocol of a RCT. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. Aug 2021;30(8):105815. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  129. Turgeman R. SimpleMed +: Advanced medication managing and reminder system. Vaica. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  130. Home page. Wisepill Technologies. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  131. smartcaps. Compliance Meds Technologies. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  132. Cision. More than just a reminder: The CYCO places innovative tech into an advanced, smart pillbox that enhances medication adherence. URL: [accessed 2023-12-06]
  133. evriMED Smart Pillbox. Wisepill Technologies. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  134. Smart Pill Dispenser. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  135. iLidRx. iRx. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  136. Pillgo Smart Pillbox. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  137. Oura K, Itabashi R, Omoto T, Yamaguchi Oura M, Kiyokawa T, Hirai E, et al. Impact of Introducing the Pletaal assist system on drug adherence in outpatients with ischaemic stroke: a pilot study. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2021;15:835-841. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  138. Pillsure Pocket. Pillsure. URL: [accessed 2023-12-06]
  139. Benefits. Pillsure. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  140. Stringer K, Azuero A, Ott C, Psaros C, Jagielski CH, Safren SA, et al. Feasibility and acceptability of real-time antiretroviral adherence monitoring among depressed women living with HIV in the deep south of the US. AIDS Behav. May 2019;23(5):1306-1314. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  141. Bateman M, Wolf A, Chimukangara B, Brust JC, Lessells R, Amico R, et al. Adherence measured using electronic dose monitoring is associated with emergent antiretroviral resistance and poor outcomes in people with human immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. Oct 29, 2022;75(9):1489-1496. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  142. Zelnick J, Daftary A, Hwang C, Labar AS, Boodhram R, Maharaj B, et al. Electronic dose monitoring identifies a high-risk subpopulation in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. Oct 05, 2021;73(7):e1901-e1910. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  143. Lucero R, Williams R, Esalomi T, Alexander-Delpech P, Cook C, Bjarnadottir R. Using an electronic medication event-monitoring system for antiretroviral therapy self-management among African American women living with HIV in rural Florida: cohort study. JMIR Form Res. Mar 19, 2020;4(2):e14888. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  144. Dworkin M, Panchal P, Wiebel W, Garofalo R, Haberer J, Jimenez A. A triaged real-time alert intervention to improve antiretroviral therapy adherence among young African American men who have sex with men living with HIV: focus group findings. BMC Public Health. Apr 11, 2019;19(1):394. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  145. MacCarthy S, Mendoza-Graf A, Saya U, Samba C, Birungi J, Okoboi S, et al. Lessons learned from a mobile technology-based intervention informed by behavioral economics to improve ART adherence among youth in Uganda. AIDS Care. May 2020;32(5):616-622. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  146. Musiimenta A, Campbell J, Tumuhimbise W, Burns B, Atukunda EC, Eyal N, et al. Electronic adherence monitoring may facilitate intentional HIV status disclosure among people living with HIV in rural southwestern Uganda. AIDS Behav. Jul 2021;25(7):2131-2138. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  147. Zhu Y, Di C, Chen Y. Clustering functional data with application to electronic medication adherence monitoring in HIV prevention trials. Stat Biosci. Jul 2019;11(2):238-261. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  148. Ngowi K, Lyamuya F, Mmbaga B, Muro E, Hillu Z, Shirima M, et al. Technical and psychosocial challenges of mHealth usage for antiretroviral therapy adherence among people living with HIV in a resource-limited setting: case series. JMIR Form Res. Jun 10, 2020;4(6):e14649. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  149. MarsIT: for use in dispensing doctors practices and pharmacies. Vivitech. URL: [accessed 2023-12-06]
  150. McGillicuddy J, Gregoski M, Weiland A, Rock RA, Brunner-Jackson BM, Patel SK, et al. Mobile health medication adherence and blood pressure control in renal transplant recipients: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. JMIR Res Protoc. Sep 04, 2013;2(2):e32. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  151. Hayakawa M, Uchimura Y, Omae K, Waki K, Fujita H, Ohe K. A smartphone-based medication self-management system with real-time medication monitoring. Appl Clin Inform. Dec 19, 2017;04(01):37-52. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  152. Shannon E, Mueller S, Schnipper J. Patient, caregiver, and provider experiences with a technologically enabled pillbox: a qualitative study. ACI Open. 2023:e61-e70. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  153. Chelliah R, Khan I, Wei S, Madar IH, Sultan G, Daliri EB, et al. Intelligent packaging systems: food quality and intelligent medicine box based on nano-sensors. In: Kim JC, Alle M, Husen A, editors. Smart Nanomaterials in Biomedical Applications. Cham, Switzerland. Springer; 2021;55-87.
  154. Tripathi A, Reddy A, Arjun B, Pandya H. Low-cost IoT device for chronic medication adherence. In: Proceedings of the 2021 IEEE 9th Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference. Presented at: R10-HTC '21; September 30-October 2, 2021, 2021;1-4; Bangalore, India. URL: [CrossRef]
  155. Poinard S, Garcin T, Trone MC, Mentek M, Lambert C, Bonjean P, et al. Objective measurement of adherence to topical steroid medication after penetrating keratoplasty using an electronic monitoring aid: A pilot study. Digit Health. 2022;8:20552076221121155. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  156. Mustefa D, Punnekkat S. Cybersecurity analysis for a remote drug dosing and adherence monitoring system. In: Proceedings of the 7th EAI International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare. Presented at: HealthyIoT '20; December 3, 2020, 2020;162-178; Viana do Castelo, Portugal. URL: [CrossRef]
  157. Hsu C, Chen T, Chang I, Wu Z, Liu C. Design and Implementation a smart Pillbox Homepage on the internet. In: Proceedings of the 3rd EAI International Conference on 6GN for Future Wireless Networks. Presented at: 6GN '20; August 15-16, 2020, 2020;427-432; Tianjin, China. URL: [CrossRef]
  158. Hastings C. Improving medication compliance with connected pill bottles and more: interview with O'Brien'Brien, CEO at AdhereTech. Medgadget. URL: https:/​/www.​​2021/​10/​improving-medication-compliance-with-connec ted-pill-bottles-and-beyond-interview-with-chris-obrien-ceo-at-adheretech.​html [accessed 2023-03-17]
  159. Medication non-adherence: The elephant in the room. AdhereTech. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  160. Aidia smart pill bottle instructions for use. YouTube. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  161. Mauro J, Mathews K, Sredzinski E. Effect of a smart pill bottle and pharmacist intervention on medication adherence in patients with multiple myeloma new to lenalidomide therapy. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. Nov 2019;25(11):1244-1254. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  162. Williams A, Theophanous C, Muir K, Rosdahl JA, Woolson S, Olsen M, et al. Within-trial cost-effectiveness of an adherence-enhancing educational intervention for glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. Dec 2022;244:216-227. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  163. Amico K, Dunlap A, Dallas R, Lindsey J, Heckman B, Flynn P, et al. Triggered escalating real-time adherence intervention to promote rapid HIV viral suppression among youth living with HIV failing antiretroviral therapy: protocol for a triggered escalating real-time adherence intervention. JMIR Res Protoc. Mar 18, 2019;8(3):e11416. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  164. SAdhereTech'sTech's smart pill bottle intervention improves adherence without major additional expense. MobiHealthNews. 2019. URL: https:/​/www.​​news/​north-america/​study-adheretechs-smart-pill-bottle-intervention-improves -adherence-without-major [accessed 2023-03-17]
  165. Bond A. Take your medicine: can a “smart” pill bottle help combat HIV? WCM Newsroom. URL: https:/​/news.​weill.cor​news/​2021/​09/​take-your-medicine-can-a-%E2%80%98smart%E2%80%99-pill-bottle-help-combat-hiv [accessed 2023-03-17]
  166. AdhereTech and the smart pill bottle. Technology and Operations Management, Harvard Business School. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  167. Hernandez D. This pill bottle is a smartphone wannabe. Wired. URL: -bottle/ [accessed 2023-03-17]
  168. Jeffries A. Smart pill bottle measures meds using touchscreen technology Homepage on the Internet. The Verge. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  169. Smart pill bottle invented at UAH heads to clinical trials. The University of Alabama in Huntsville. 2013. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  170. Cho H, Flynn G, Saylor M, Gradilla M, Schnall R. Use of the FITT framework to understand patients' experiences using a real-time medication monitoring pill bottle linked to a mobile-based HIV self-management app: A qualitative study. Int J Med Inform. Nov 2019;131:103949. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  171. SmartBottle. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  172. eCAP. Information Mediary Corp. URL: -bottle [accessed 2023-03-17]
  173. Real-time medication adherence technology. SMRxT. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  174. Sun W, Reeve R, Ouellette T, Stutsky M, De Jesus R, Huffer MJ, et al. Novel tool to monitor adherence to oral Oncolytics: a pilot study. JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics. Dec 2021(5):701-708. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  175. Thukral C. This smart pill bottle was designed to change user behavior and fight the opioid epidemic. Yanko Design. URL: https:/​/www.​​2020/​10/​13/​this-smart-pill-bottle-was-designed-to-change-user-behavior-and-fight-the -opioid-epidemic/​ [accessed 2023-03-17]
  176. Medication compliance made easy. Pilleve. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  177. Electronic pill bottle monitoring to promote medication adherence for people with multiple sclerosis. clinicaltrials. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  178. Park H, Kang H, Kim S, Singh-Carlson S. Effect of a smart pill bottle reminder intervention on medication adherence, self-efficacy, and depression in breast cancer survivors. Cancer Nurs. 2022;45(6):E874-E882. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  179. Solving America’s medication adherence epidemic: Startup develops connected reminder and monitoring system. Purdue University. URL: https:/​/www.​​newsroom/​releases/​2018/​Q2/​solving-americas-medication-adherence-epidemic --startup-develops-connected-reminder-and-monitoring-system.​html [accessed 2023-03-17]
  180. SmartVial. ECCT. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  181. Electric pill bottles and text messaging not enough to affect blood pressure control. Penn Medicine. URL: [accessed 2023-03-29]
  182. Bien-Gund C, Ho J, Bair E, Marcus N, Choi RJ, Szep Z, et al. Brief report: financial incentives and real-time adherence monitoring to promote daily adherence to HIV treatment and viral suppression among people living with HIV: a pilot study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. May 01, 2021;87(1):688-692. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  183. Hemsworth M. Medication reminder water bottles: The 'EVE' smart bottle stores pills and provides reminders. TrendHunter. URL: [accessed 2023-12-06]
  184. MotionDx: creating an effective and affordable smart pill bottle. Youth Science Canada. URL: https:/​/projectboard.​world/​ysc/​project/​motiondx-creating-an-effective-and-affordable-smart-pill-bottle [accessed 2023-03-29]
  185. Aldeer M, Howard R, Martin R, Ortiz J. Unobtrusive patient identification using smart pill-bottle systems. Internet Things. Jun 2021;14:100389. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  186. Pfizer digital innovation helps improve patient health outcomes. Pfizer. URL: https:/​/www.​​sites/​default/​files/​investors/​financial_reports/​annual_reports/​2021/​story/​improving-health-with-digital-technology/​ [accessed 2023-03-29]
  187. Smart pill bottle holders track missed doses and alert caregivers. Springwise. 2014. URL: [accessed 2023-03-29]
  188. S.M.R.T. bottle/Amcor rigid plastics and confrerie Clinique. IntelliPACK. URL: [accessed 2023-03-29]
  189. Smart Couples II launches first "smart" pill bottle. Columbia Social Intervention Group. URL: [accessed 2023-03-29]
  190. Fudin J, Schatman M, Bettinger J, Cleary J, Kulich R, Zuleta D, et al. Funtionality study of the Pill-Safe Digital Health System to assess real time mechanical, clinical practicality, and utility including instantaneous analytical data on drug abude tendencies and adherence: Alpha usability test. Postgraduate Medicine. Sep 01, 2019;131(sup1):18-19. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef]
  191. Connected medication platform. Pillsy. URL: [accessed 2023-12-05]
  192. Smart pill bottle pilot. Manulife. URL: [accessed 2023-03-17]
  193. Rice D, Kaplan T, Hotan G, Vogel AC, Matiello M, Gillani RL, et al. Electronic pill bottles to monitor and promote medication adherence for people with multiple sclerosis: A randomized, virtual clinical trial. J Neurol Sci. Sep 15, 2021;428:117612. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]
  194. Santo K, Singleton A, Rogers K, Thiagalingam A, Chalmers J, Chow CK, et al. Medication reminder applications to improve adherence in coronary heart disease: a randomised clinical trial. Heart. Mar 2019;105(4):323-329. [FREE Full text] [CrossRef] [Medline]

PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses
SMAP: smart medication dispensing and adherence product

Edited by Y Jiang; submitted 20.07.23; peer-reviewed by W Wei, D Shaw; comments to author 28.09.23; revised version received 25.10.23; accepted 19.11.23; published 19.12.23.


©Sadaf Faisal, Devine Samoth, Yusra Aslam, Hawa Patel, SooMin Park, Bincy Baby, Tejal Patel. Originally published in JMIR Aging (, 19.12.2023.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work, first published in JMIR Aging, is properly cited. The complete bibliographic information, a link to the original publication on, as well as this copyright and license information must be included.